Saturday, August 30, 2008
Indian Classical Music
Indian classical music is basically composed of 7 basic notes सा रे ग म प ध नि, with five interspersed half-notes, resulting in a 12-note scale
This rhythmic group is based on rhythmic patterns called ताल. The melodic fundamentals are ‘melodic modes’, known as थाट , थाट are part of "musical personalities" called राग।
थाट - may consist of up to seven scale degrees or स्वर .
• सा = Do • रे = Re • ग = Mi • म = Fa • प = Sol • ध = La • नि = Ti • सा = Do
A typical rendition of हिन्दुस्तानी raga involves two stages:
अलाप : a rhythmically free improvisation on the rules for the राग in order to give existence to the राग and shape out its characteristics। The अलाप further divided into the अलाप, जोड़ and झल।
बंदिश or गत : It is a fixed, melodic composition set in a specific राग, performed with rhythmic accessory by a तबला or पखावज.
स्थायी : The initial melodic symphony.
अंतरा : The first body phrase melodic symphony
संचारी : The third body phrase melodic symphony, like in ध्रुपद बंदिश
आभोग : The fourth and concluding body phrase, melodic symphony, like in ध्रुपद बंदिश.
There are three variations of बंदिश, regarding tempo:
विलंबित बंदिश : A slow and steady melodic symphony,
मध्यलय बंदिश : A medium tempo melodic competition
द्रुत बंदिश : A fast tempo melodic symphony,
Types of Vocal music compositions:
The major vocal forms-cum-styles related with हिन्दुस्तानी classical music are ध्रुपद , ख्याल , and ठुमरी . Other forms include धमार , तराना , त्रिवट , चैती , कजरी , टप्पा , टाप -ख्याल , अश्तापदिस , दादरा , ग़ज़ल and भजन. Some forms come under folk or Semi-Classical or Classical ('Light' Classical) music,
ध्रुपद music is primarily devotional in theme and content. It contains recitals in praise of particular deities. ध्रुपद compositions begin with a relatively long and acyclic अलाप , traditionally performed by male singers.
ख्याल , is special as it is based on improvising and expressing feeling. ख्याल are also more popularly depicting emotional significance between two lovers, circumstances evoking intense feeling, or situations of ethological significance in Hinduism and Islam.
टप्पा is a form of Indian classical vocal music whose specialty is its rolling pace based on fast, delicate, tricky structure. The arrangement of words, with the help of tone vibrations performed in superb vocal style, create a charming ambiance.
तराना are songs that are used to convey a mood of delight and are usually performed towards the end of a concert. They consist of a few lines of musical sounds or बोल set to a harmony.
ठुमरी is a semi-classical vocal form, Punjabi, लखानोवी and पूरब अंग ठुमरी . Lyrics are in ब्रज भाषा and are usually romantic.
ग़ज़ल is an formerly Persian form of poetry. In the Indian sub-continent, ग़ज़ल became the most common form of poetry in the उर्दू language.